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Central government

According to the Constitution of the Republic of China, the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China, and other relevant laws and regulations, the President is the head of state and the Vice President is first in the line of succession.

The Office of the President is set up in response to the President's needs in carrying out their constitutional powers of office, and the National Security Council is set up to advise the President regarding major national security policy decisions.

Academia Sinica and Academia Historica are under the direct administrative supervision of the Office of the President.

The Executive Yuan is the nation's highest administrative body, the Legislative Yuan the highest legislative body, the Judicial Yuan the highest judicial body, the Examination Yuan the highest examination body, and the Control Yuan is the highest control body.

As head of state, the President, starting from the ninth term, shall be directly elected by the entire populace of the free area of the Republic of China, and may hold office for no more than two consecutive four-year terms. The President represents the country in its foreign relations and at state functions. All acts are conducted in his name, including command of the armed forces; promulgation of laws and decrees; declaration of martial law with the approval of, or subject to confirmation by, the Legislative Yuan; appointment and removal of civil servants and military officers; conferring of honors and decorations; granting of amnesties and pardons, remission of sentences, and restitution of civil rights; as well as conclusion of treaties and declaration of war and cease-fire. According to the newly amended Additional Articles of the Constitution, the President, by the resolution of the Executive Yuan, may issue emergency orders and take all necessary measures to avert imminent danger affecting the security of the State or of the people or to cope with any serious financial or economic crisis. The President may, following passage by the Legislative Yuan of a no-confidence vote against the president of the Executive Yuan, declare the dissolution of the Legislative Yuan after consulting with its president. However, the President shall not dissolve the Legislative Yuan while martial law or an emergency order is in effect.

To determine major policies in national security, such as national defense, foreign affairs, cross-strait relations, and other severe national calamities, the President may, in accordance with the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China, establish a National Security Council as an advisory organization.

National Security Council

The Vice President shall succeed the presidency in case the office of the President becomes vacant. In case the President is unable to attend to office due to any cause, the Vice President shall act for the President.

The President shall establish the Office of the President in exercise of his/her functions and powers in accordance with the Constitution. The Office shall have a secretary-general who is appointed and authorized by the President to take overall charge of the Office’s affairs, and direct as well as supervise its staff members. The Office shall also have senior advisors, national policy advisors, and military strategy advisors to provide opinions, and render advice to the President, regarding national plans, military strategy, and national defense. Academia Sinica and Academia Historica are under the direct administrative supervision of the Office of the President.

Academia Sinica Academia Historica

The Executive Yuan is the country's highest administrative organ, and exercises the powers granted to it under the Constitution. The Executive Yuan Council—composed of the president and vice president of the Executive Yuan (commonly referred to as the premier and vice premier), the ministers and chairpersons of the various ministries, councils, and commissions, and the several ministers without portfolio—makes decisions on important matters brought before it. To promote organizational reform, the Organization Act of the Executive Yuan was amended on February 3, 2010 and January 19, 2022, and authorizes a total of 30 agencies, which are 14 ministries, nine councils or commissions, three independent administrative institutions, the Central Bank, the National Palace Museum, and two directorates-general, with any new agencies to be established as organizational reform progresses. The Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan)

The Legislative Yuan, the highest legislative organ of this Country, exercises legislative power on behalf of the people. Beginning with the Seventh Legislative Yuan, the Legislative Yuan shall have 113 members. The members of the Legislative Yuan shall serve a term of four years, which is renewable after re-election. The distribution of the Legislative seats is as follows: (1) Seventy-three members shall be elected from the Special Municipalities, counties, and cities in the free area. At least one member shall be elected from each county or city. Members for the seats shall be elected in proportion to the population of each Special Municipality, county, or city, which shall be divided into electoral constituencies equal in number with the members to be elected; (2) Three members each shall be elected from among the lowland and highland aborigines in the free area; (3) A total of 34 members shall be elected from the nationwide constituency and among citizens residing abroad. Members for the seats shall be elected proportionately from each of the political parties that obtains at least 5 percent of the total vote, and each party's female elects shall not be less than one-half of its total elected members. The Legislative Yuan has a president and a vice president, elected by and from among its members.

The functions of the Legislative Yuan are: to decide by resolution statutory or budgetary bills or bills concerning martial law, amnesty, declaration of war, conclusion of peace or treaties, and other important affairs of the state; to propose to amend the Constitution, change the nation's territorial boundaries, or impeach the President or Vice President; to exercise the power of consent regarding appointments of personnel nominated by the ROC President, such as the president, vice president and grand justices of the Judicial Yuan, the president, vice president and members of the Examination Yuan, the president, vice president, members and the Auditor General of the Control Yuan, and the Public Prosecutor General of the Supreme Prosecutors Office. When the Legislative Yuan convenes each year, it may hear a report on the state of the nation by the President. The Legislative Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan)

The Judicial Yuan is the country's highest judicial organ. It is responsible for judicial interpretation, adjudications, and disciplinary cases. The Constitutional Court comprises 15 grand justices, of which one is the president and another the vice president of the Judicial Yuan, and adjudicates on cases pursuant to the Constitutional Court Procedure Act. Courts of all levels are responsible for the adjudication of civil, criminal, administrative, and intellectual property litigations, while the Disciplinary Court is responsible for the discipline of civil servants, judges, and prosecutors. The Judicial Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan)

The Examination Yuan is responsible for the examination, employment, and management of all civil servants in this country. Specifically, the Examination Yuan oversees all examination-related matters; all matters relating to qualification screening; security of tenure, pecuniary aid in case of death, and the retirement of civil servants; and all legal matters pertaining to the employment, discharge, performance evaluations, scale of salaries, promotions, transfers, commendations, and rewards for civil servants. All these functions are handled by the Ministry of Examination, the Ministry of Civil Service, the Civil Service Protection and Training Commission, and the Public Service Pension Fund Supervisory Board.

The Examination Yuan has a president, a vice president, and 19 members, all of whom are, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan, appointed by the ROC President for six-year terms.(As provided by amendments to the Organic Act of the Examination Yuan promulgated on January 8, 2020, the Examination Yuan will now have seven to nine members, and the terms of office of the president, vice president, and members have been reduced to four years. The president, vice president, and members in office prior to the date on which such amendments came into force may exercise their authority pursuant to the provisions of the pre-amendment Act until the expiration of their original terms of office.) The Examination Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan)

The Control Yuan is the highest watchdog body of this country, exercising the powers of impeachment, censure, and audit. It has 29 members, including a president and a vice president, each of whom shall serve a term of six years and is appointed by the President of the ROC with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The Control Yuan has a Ministry of Audit, headed by an auditor-general who is nominated and appointed, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan, by the President of the Republic for a six-year term. The ministry audits the final accounts of revenues and expenditures of all government agencies. The Control Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan)

Code Ver.:F201708221923 & F201708221923.cs
Code Ver.:201801051632 & 201801051632.cs